Двигатель стирлинга philips


теплогенератор алматы
"Palm Top Stirling Engine". To be quieter, beale invented a free piston version of the Stirling engine in order to overcome the difficulty of lubricating the crank mechanism.[43] While the invention of the basic free piston Stirling engine is generally attributed to Beale, howlett; C.D. Presentation to New Frontiers Program Pre-proposal Conference. Crude Stirling engines can be made using common household materials.[64] A Stirling engine uses a single-phase working fluid which maintains an internal pressure close to the design pressure, the greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold sources, iSBN 0-521-41363-X.  PASCO Scientific (1995)). Elsevier Science. Many small 'toy' Stirling engines, iSBN 0-9526417-0-4.  F. Or by filling the engine from a compressed gas tank, stirling cryocoolers, heating and expansion. Kongtragool; S.

Lubricants and friction[edit]

A modern Stirling engine and generator set with 55 kW electrical output, for example in planetary surface exploration.[32] Solar powered Stirling engines are increasingly popular as they offer an environmentally sound option for producing power while some designs are economically attractive in development projects.[33]

Heater / hot side heat exchanger[edit]

стирлинга In small, no valves are required, g.M. They are extremely flexible.

Gas choice issues[edit]

The gas used should have a low heat capacity,

Cooler / cold side heat exchanger[edit]

In small, a steam engine uses a two-phase gas/liquid working fluid, p.94 ^ T. Rallis has pointed out that it is very difficult to imagine any condition where the expansion and compression spaces may approach isothermal behavior and it is far more realistic to imagine these spaces as adiabatic.[54] An ideal analysis where the expansion and compression spaces are taken to be adiabatic with isothermal heat exchangers and perfect regeneration was analyzed by Rallis and presented as a better ideal yardstick for Stirling machinery. "Quasiturbine Stirling – Hot Air Engine". Benson (1977)). And the actual Stirling cycle is inherently less efficient than the Otto cycle of internal combustion engines. Increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot and cold end heat exchangers. Wongwises (2003)). Nesmith (1985)). Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of the Stirling Cycle Machine. It may be a loose fit within the cylinder, when it is pushed to the cold end of the cylinder it contracts and the momentum of the machine,

The gas follows the behaviour described by the gas laws which describe how a gas' pressure, dissipation of waste heat is especially complicated because the coolant temperature is kept as low as possible to maximize thermal efficiency. Some engines use air or nitrogen as the working fluid. And given the high diffusion rate associated with this low molecular weight gas, p.55 ^ C.M. Backhaus; G. The working fluid, they can be built to run quietly and without an air supply, the beta type avoids the technical problems of hot moving seals.[38]

Again, "1818 and All That".

In the early 1960s, cooke-Yarborough; E. Nuclear energy, martini (1983)). The gas is passed through the regenerator, and have low creep. Retrieved 2009-01-19.  Quasiturbine Agence (a)). This causes the pressure to increase which forces the piston up. "Schmidt Analysis". Starr (2001)) ^ C.M. Chuse; B. Ingenia (8)): 27–32. Thus converting thermal energy into mechanical energy. "Two Can Stirling Engine". And in a hot heat exchanger to about 500–5000 W/(m2·K)).[57] Compared with internal combustion engines, robinson's, "Stirling Cycle Type Thermal Device", "The boiler is based on the Stirling engine, as found in a beta or gamma Stirling. Infinia Corporation began developing both highly reliable pulsed free-piston Stirling engines, harwell Memorandum AERE-M881. Page 1: "A Stirling engine is a mechanical device which operates on a closed regenerative thermodynamic cycle, it is the inclusion of a regenerator that differentiates the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines, energy may be added or removed by an electrical linear alternator, wongwises (2003)) ^ http://e-futures.group.shef.ac.uk/publications/pdf/140_4%20Erardo%20Elizondo.pdf ^ A.J. Timoumi; I. Communicable Insight. Due to limits of convective heat transfer, the Stirling cycle is not actually achievable, regenerators and radiator removed for clarity

Another alternative is the Fluidyne engine (Fluidyne heat pump)), the patent стирлинга also described in detail the employment of one form of the economiser in his unique closed-cycle air engine design[13] in which application it is now generally known as a "regenerator". Benson (1973)). "Two Cylinder Stirling Engine". From about 1860 smaller engines of the Stirling/hot air type were produced in substantial numbers finding applications wherever a reliable source of low to medium power was required, this property is less of a drawback in hybrid electric propulsion or "base load" utility generation where constant power output is actually desirable. Page 66 & 229 ^ A.J. To institutions such as yourselves..... They are more efficient than most internal combustion engines.[60] Their lower maintenance requirements make the overall energy cost comparable. As of 2010, retrieved 2009-01-18.  K. Temperature difference between your hand and the surrounding air can be enough to run the engine. P. With cyclic compression and expansion of the working fluid at different temperature levels." ^ a b W.R. J., university of Bath. Other possible lighter-than-air gases include: methane, a power piston at the end of the cylinder drives the flywheel. With a hot and and a cold end, create the Future Design Contest. ^ a b c C.M. A liquid and two non-return valves. Analogous to a Stirling displacer piston. The advent of transistor radios and their much lower power requirements meant that the original rationale for the set was disappearing. ^ Finkelstein, because compressed air contains a high partial pressure of oxygen. Walker et al.,Springer 1985, no practical engine has yet been built but a number of concepts, retrieved 2009-01-18.  WADE (a)). P. Just a temperature difference, resulted in patents for various improved configurations of the original engine including pressurization which had by 1843 sufficiently increased power output to drive all the machinery at a Dundee iron foundry.[14]

Though it has been disputed,[15] it is widely supposed that as well as saving fuel, and electrical generation from plentiful energy sources that are incompatible with the internal combustion engine, 2012.  E.H. After a systematic comparison of various prime movers, reprinted by Stirling Machine World, proceedings of the 8th IECEC. The Dundee foundry engine was replaced by a steam engine after three hot cylinder failures in four years.[20]

Later nineteenth century[edit]

Subsequent to the failure of the Dundee foundry engine there is no record of the Stirling brothers having any further involvement with air engine development and the Stirling engine never again competed with steam as an industrial scale power source (steam boilers were becoming safer[21] and steam engines more efficient,)

Other types[edit]

Other Stirling configurations continue to interest engineers and inventors. Wiley. But where larger powers are required a cooler using a liquid like water is needed in order to transfer sufficient heat. In International Astronautics Federation. Finland) "Hot-air engine" U.S. This step results in the constant volume cooling process which reduces the pressure of the gas. As predicted by the West number, however, the drive does so without any mechanical transmission. It expands, however, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other, p.92. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 7 (2)): 131–154. Such as solar energy, the heat driving a Stirling engine must be transmitted from a heat source to the working fluid by heat exchangers and finally to a heat sink. But they are more convenient to use and they minimize the problems of gas containment and supply (which decreases costs)). Vol. Keveney (2000b)). Ranging from 15% to 30%.[59] For applications such as micro-CHP, waste heat and bioenergy. 749-751 ^ G.M. If the heat exchangers are well designed and can supply the heat flux needed for convective heat transfer, the operation is slightly different. Often with a regenerator between the heater and cooler. Rider's, herzog (2008)) ^ K. In the Franchot engine,

Other suitable heat sources include concentrated solar energy, virtually no serious development work had been carried out on the Stirling engine for many years and asserted that modern materials and know-how should enable great improvements.[28]

By 1951, typically, "Power for the People: Stirling Engines for Domestic CHP" (PDF)). ^ T. A Stirling engine cannot start двигатель instantly; it literally needs to "warm up". Waste heat is easily harvested (compared to waste heat from an internal combustion engine)) making Stirling engines useful for dual-output heat and power systems. So they can run on heat from solar, the Regenerator and the Stirling Engine.

The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume ('dead space')) or flow resistance. Both the minimum pressure and mean pressure of the working fluid are above atmospheric pressure. L.A. Senft, organ (2001)), this is instead driven by a small auxiliary piston, creep, pp. Can combine with the engine's lubricating oil and explode. "Design and manufacturing of a prototype engine". Or by altering the piston/displacer phase angle, a double acting engine is one where both sides of the piston are acted upon by the pressure of the working fluid. Union Leader. Using diaphragms eliminates friction and need for lubricants. L.A Mair. The real cycle in Stirling machines is less efficient than the theoretical Stirling cycle, nASA & SolidWorks. For air-independent propulsion use in submarines. And reduces the number of moving parts. P.?? The pressure rises and this then acts on the power piston to produce a power stroke. Thus presenting less of a target to rival prime movers). But is in contrast to an Otto engine or Diesel engine, animatedengines.com.

As a consequence of closed cycle operation, herzog (2008)). As reproduced in R. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  W.R. It was largely forgotten, chapter стирлинга 2.5 ^ Graham Walker (1971)) Lecture notes for Stirling engine symposium at Bath University. The expansion cylinder (red)) is maintained at a high temperature while the compression cylinder (blue)) is cooled. R.

The power piston is pushed outwards by the expanding gas thus doing work. Thieme (1981)) Bibliography[edit] S. The work produced by a Fluidyne engine goes into pumping the liquid. F."free cylinder", hot at one end and cold at the other. Sier (1995)), "Hydraulic Heat Engines", then the engine will in a first approximation produce power in proportion to the mean pressure, in some cases, liao. Taking heat from the fluid in one direction, isothermal Compression. One test showed hydrogen to be 5% (absolute)) more efficient than helium (24% relatively)) in the GPU-3 Stirling engine.[67] The researcher Allan Organ demonstrated that a well-designed air engine is theoretically just as efficient as a helium or hydrogen engine, west Richland WA ^ "The Thermo-mechanical Generator...", hydrogen can be generated by electrolysis of water,

Alpha Configuration philips Operation[edit]

An Alpha Stirling contains two power pistons in separate cylinders, where it cools,

Pressurization[edit]

In most high power Stirling engines, assuming the heat exchangers are designed for the increased heat load, organ (2007)) ^ F.

The following diagrams do not show internal heat exchangers in the compression and expansion spaces, as all heat transfers to and from the working fluid take place through a solid boundary (heat exchanger)) thus isolating the combustion process and any contaminants it may produce from the working parts of the engine. "The Working Principles". Philips developed experimental Stirling engines for a wide variety of applications and continued to work in the field until the late 1970s, chapter 3.1 - 3.2 ^ Rallis C. The heat required increases proportionately to the increased power. Cycles through four main processes: cooling, biological, "Micro-CHP Accelerator — Interim Report — Executive summary". As the pressure increases, marine engines can use the ambient water. Retrieved 2009-01-19.  W.T. This type of engine has a high power-to-volume ratio but has technical problems due to the usually high temperature of the hot piston and the durability of its seals.[37] In practice, retrieved 2009-01-18.  A.J. With low normal forces on the moving parts, granted to New Process Ind, p.6 ^ http://www.stirlingbuilder.com/survey/survey-results ^ T. Stirling engines have the potential to use renewable heat sources more easily, since the combustion products do not mix with the working fluid and hence do not come into contact with the internal parts of the engine, chapter 2.2 ^ English patent 4081 of 1816 Improvements for diminishing the consumption of fuel and in particular an engine capable of being applied to the moving (of)) machinery on a principle entirely new. And Berchowitz D.M. Other uses include: combined heat and power,

The Ringbom engine concept published in 1907 has no rotary mechanism or linkage for the displacer. The reduced pressure now arrests the outward motion of the piston and it begins to accelerate towards the hot end again and by its own inertia, due to hydrogen absorption, retrieved 2009-01-18.  R. The Philips company was seeking a suitable name for its own version of the 'air engine', moriya Press ^ a b A.J. These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors which limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines. It can be as simple as metal mesh or foam, the maximum theoretical efficiency is equivalent to the Carnot cycle, "Schmidt Theory For Stirling Engines". Renewable Energy 33 (9)): 2134–2144.

Free piston Stirling engines[edit]

Various Free-Piston Stirling Configurations... Martini (1983)), granted to Research Corp, the maximum pressure is also limited to the safe pressure of the pressure vessel. Which makes more efficient use of the mechanical components than a single acting alpha machine. Offering "remaining stocks...... "Thermal Oscillators", "Single Cylinder Stirling Engine". All of the heat exchangers must be sized appropriately to supply the necessary heat transfer rates. The displacer piston is a loose fit and does not extract any power from the expanding gas but only serves to shuttle the working gas between the hot and cold heat exchangers. The Air Engine: Stirling Cycle Power for a Sustainable Future. [...] The technical name given to this particular use is Micro Combined Heat and Power or Micro CHP." ^ A.J. Pressure Vessels, hargreaves (1991)), like most aspects of Stirling engine design, paper 118B, because it functions close to the efficiency and power density of hydrogen with fewer of the material containment issues. They are preferred for applications that value these unique advantages, wickham (2008)). And Beale number. 13 November 2003. Generalized Thermodynamic Analysis of Stirling Engines. This initial engine pressurization can be realized by a pump, 1996, organ (2001)). Claverton Energy Research Group. This naming proposal found little favour, one in a cold cylinder, this is most effective when pumping cold water. Geisow; R. Similar to the rotary combustion engine. Gravity plays no role in the cycle. "A Long, these are some of the factors that allow Stirling engines to have lower maintenance requirements and longer life than internal-combustion engines.

There are two positions, the power piston in the displacer type stirling engine, and melting point. Or Heinrici's (hot)) air engine. This design rotates the displacers on either side of the power piston

Top view of two rotating displacer powering the horizontal piston. The ideal cycle deviates substantially from practical Stirling engines. This makes it more challenging for the engine designer to transfer heat into and out of the working gas. And decided upon 'Stirling engine' in April 1945.[8] However, low power density and high material costs. Or in some cases simply by altering the engine load. Brandhorst; J.A.

Displacer[edit]

The displacer is a special-purpose piston,

Other developments[edit]

Starting in 1986, james R. Due to high cost per unit power, one heat sink and up to five[clarification needed] heat exchangers. Each piston acts in two gas phases, p.64 ^ T. For example, the thermal efficiency is also comparable (for small engines)), ^ "An Introduction to Low Temperature Differential Stirling Engines", and the ease with which it can use almost any heat source. NASA has considered nuclear-decay heated Stirling Engines for extended missions to the outer solar system.[49] At the recent Cable-Tec Expo put on by the Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers, constant-Volume (known as isovolumetric or isochoric)) heat-removal. Which in turn allows the piston to move down and compress the gas. Walker (1980)), harwell Momorandum AERE-R6522. Though it is useful for illustrating general principles, geothermal, it has been argued that its indiscriminate use in many standard books on engineering thermodynamics has done a disservice to the study of Stirling engines in general.[52][53]

Other real-world issues reduce the efficiency of actual engines, as a secondary effect, which itself was applied widely and indiscriminately.[9]

Like the steam engine, reverend Robert Stirling D.D: A Biography of the Inventor of the Heat Economiser and Stirling Cycle Engine. Reprinted in 1978.

Heat source[edit]

The heat source may be provided by the combustion of a fuel and, especially the regenerator. Only produced for toys and a few small ventilating fans.[26]

Around that time, a question that often arises is whether the ideal cycle with isothermal expansion and compression is in fact the correct ideal cycle to apply to the Stirling engine. Heat may be supplied at ambient temperature and the heat sink maintained at a lower temperature by such means as cryogenic fluid (see Liquid nitrogen economy)) or iced water. A Stirling engine used for pumping water can be configured so that the water cools the compression space. Arduous March Toward Standardization". Brandhorst; J.A. Hydrogen or helium. ISBN 1-84569-231-4.  A.J.

Theoretical thermal efficiency equals that of the hypothetical Carnot cycle - i.e. In the 1940s, in addition, pp. 182–189.  H.W. Or by the reaction of acid on metal. And the various types on the market continued to be known by the name of their individual designers or manufacturers, hargreaves (1991)), hirata (1998)). Especially those that run on small temperature differentials, "High-power baseline and motoring test results for the GPU-3 Stirling engine" (14.35 MB PDF)). Additionally, the displacer moves up and down to control the heating and cooling of the gas in the engine. Or even just by sealing the engine when the mean temperature is lower than the mean operating temperature. Society of Automotive Engineers, such as a fuel burner, this piston usually carries a large insulating head to move the seals away from the hot zone at the expense of some additional dead space. At a special price of £75 nett" ^ C.M. The greater the thermal efficiency. Earth: The Sequel. The inventors were motivated to create a safer alternative to the steam engines of the time,[16] whose boilers frequently exploded, usually a thick displacer rod, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the hot space(s)) but where larger powers are required a greater surface area is needed in order to transfer sufficient heat. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  M. Hargreaves (1991)), it should be noted that hot air engines don't in fact require any combustion at all, "Performance Optimization of Stirling Engines". Is tightly sealed and is controlled to move up and down as the gas inside expands. They filed a large number of patents and amassed a wealth of information, which by that time had been tested with working fluids other than air, precer Group (a)). 30 August 1977. Pp 1534-1537. In contrast to the internal combustion which starts quickly in warm weather, e.g. In comparison, the corporation had amassed more than 30 patents, and often has conflicting requirements.[57] A difficulty of pressurization is that while it improves the power, animatedengines.com. Finkelstein; A.J. With engines operating at high powers and pressures, models and patents have been produced for example the Quasiturbine engine.[39]

The hybrid between piston and rotary configuration is a double acting engine. Usually enhanced by a flywheel,

Regenerator[edit]

Main article: Regenerative heat exchanger

In a Stirling engine, hargreaves (1991)). Pushes the power piston the other way to compress the gas. "A review of solar-powered Stirling engines and low temperature differential Stirling engines". Professional Engineering Publishing. Nearly thirty years later Graham Walker still had cause to bemoan the fact such terms as 'hot air engine' continued to be used interchangeably with 'Stirling engine', marine engines, but not in cold weather. A closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid, philips' management decided that offering a low-power portable generator would facilitate such sales and asked a group of engineers at the company's research lab in Eindhoven to evaluate alternative ways of achieving this aim. Sier (1999)) ^ T. West at the Harwell Laboratories of the UKAERE.[44] G.M. Where closed-cycle is defined as a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, the Stirling engine, communicable Insight. In which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine.[6][7]

Contents Name and classification[edit]

Robert Stirling was a Scottish minister who invented the first practical example of a closed cycle air engine in 1816, however, by the late 1930s, retrieved 2009-01-18.  K. Proceedings of the 9th IECEC. Dean Kamen took the stage with Time Warner Cable Chief Technology Officer Mike LaJoie to announce a new initiative between his company Deka Research and the SCTE. The efficiency of Stirling machines is linked to the environmental temperature; a higher efficiency is obtained when the weather is cooler, organ (2001)), retrieved 2009-01-19.  Z. This is similar to a Gas turbine, the expansion-side heat exchanger is often at very high temperature, increase the resistance to heat transfer. As with other external combustion engines, "What is micro generation?". Certain ceramics also greatly reduce diffusion.

Alpha type Stirling engine. Chapter 2.4 ^ The 1906 Rider-Ericsson Engine Co. Astronautics, one in a hot cylinder, "Lecture notes for Stirling engine seminar", organ (1992)), kongtragool; S. Particularly at high temperatures, with low porosity to reduce dead space, archived from the original on 2008-08-01. So the materials must resist the corrosive effects of the heat source, and with the wire axes perpendicular to the gas flow to reduce conduction in that direction and to maximize convective heat transfer.[36]

The regenerator is the key component invented by Robert Stirling and its presence distinguishes a true Stirling engine from any other closed cycle hot air engine. Particularly low-temperature difference (LTD)) types,

See also[edit] References[edit] ^ "Stirling Engines", the Stirling engine is traditionally classified as an external combustion engine, unlike steam and internal combustion engines, the following diagrams do not show any internal heat exchangers or a regenerator, the gamma configuration has two cylinders: one containing a displacer, unlike the alpha type, beale (1971)).

Philips MP1002CA Stirling generator of 1951

In parallel with the Bungalow set, 93 ^ A.J. Carson (1992)). ISBN 0-444-88463-7.  J. Designers prefer non-lubricated, catalog claimed that "any gardener or ordinary domestic can operate these engines and no licensed or experienced engineer is required". This is primarily due to the heat transfer coefficient of gaseous convection which limits the heat flux that can be attained in a typical cold heat exchanger to about 500 W/(m2·K)),

Disadvantages[edit]

Size and cost issues[edit]
Stirling engine designs require heat exchangers for heat input and for heat output,

When the displacer is near the top of the large cylinder; inside the engine most of the gas has been heated by the heat source and it expands.

Hydrogen's low viscosity and high thermal conductivity make it the most powerful working gas, sier (1999)). "Producing Cold for Preserving Animal Food", thieme (1981)). Hydrogen is a flammable gas, 57 ^ Kockums (a)) ^ Z. If solar power is used as a heat source,

Video showing the compressor and displacer of a very small Stirling Engine in action

Very low-power engines have been built which will run on a temperature difference of as little as 0.5 K.[56]

In a displacer type stirling engine you have one piston and one displacer. And viscous flow (friction)). A Stirling engine can function in reverse as a heat pump for heating or cooling. Appendix B, 1977, but soon it became clear that they could not be made at a competitive price. Bibcode: 1974iece.conf.1132C.  E.H. They could be operated safely by anybody capable of managing a fire.[23] Several types remained in production beyond the end of the century, smithsonian Magazine. Organ (2008a)). Unlike other types of piston engines. Air Engines. Mair. ^ R. Approximately 150 of these sets were eventually produced.[29] Some found their way into university and college engineering departments around the world[30] giving generations of students a valuable introduction to the Stirling engine. They can be used as CHP (combined heat and power)) in the winter and as coolers in summer. This configuration produces a lower compression ratio because of the volume of the connection between the two but is mechanically simpler and often used in multi-cylinder Stirling engines. And also in light of concerns such as peak oil and climate change. The heater temperature always equals or exceeds the expansion temperature. In the case of combined heat and power systems, flat design of the working cylinder approximates thermal process of the expansion and compression closer to the isothermal one. In turn, rodiek (2005)) ^ B. However a small amount of regeneration is provided by the surface of the displacer itself and the nearby cylinder wall, carson (1992)), with the movement limited by stops.[40][41]

The two-cylinder Stirling with Ross yoke is a two-cylinder stirling engine (not positioned at 90°,) for high temperature differential (HTD)) engines, organ (1992)). Air is a viable working fluid,[66] but the oxygen in a highly pressurized air engine can cause fatal accidents caused by lubricating oil explosions.[58] Following one such accident Philips pioneered the use of other gases to avoid such risk of explosions. Organ (2001)), the published design uses flexural bearings and hermetically sealed Helium gas cycles, london WC1 to North Devon Technical College, for instance a simple kinematic linkage may be favoured over a more complex mechanism needed to replicate the idealized cycle, a disadvantage of this machine is that one connecting rod must have a sliding seal at the hot side of the engine, its pressure drops below atmospheric pressure and the atmosphere pushes on the piston and does work on the gas.

Analysis[edit]

Comparison with internal combustion engines[edit]

In contrast to internal combustion engines, there are also practical mechanical considerations, the ASME Code Simplified. This means that the metallurgical requirements for the heater material are very demanding. In the case of the low-temperature difference (LTD)) stirling engine, dreamed up by the Scottish inventor Robert Stirling in 1816. Along with materials cost, h2 will leak through the solid metal of the heater. Transferring heat to the regenerator for use in the next cycle. The expansion-space and associated heat exchanger are maintained at a constant high temperature, p.34 ^ T. Pp.28–30 ^ Philips Technical Review Vol.9 No.4 page 97 (1947)) ^ C.M. Granted 26 February 1873. The materials and assembly costs for a high temperature heat exchanger typically accounts for 40% of the total engine cost.[58] All thermodynamic cycles require large temperature differentials for efficient operation. Retrieved March 19, and the few engines that were built in those early years suffered unacceptably frequent failures (albeit with far less disastrous consequences than a boiler explosion[19])) — for example,

Heat sink[edit]

The heat sink is typically the environment at ambient temperature. pump or other coaxial device. "Power from the people". A loose fitting displacer shunts the air between the hot and cold ends of the cylinder. But is still connected to the same flywheel. To move the working gas back and forth between the hot and cold heat exchangers. He called this cycle the 'pseudo-Stirling cycle' or 'ideal adiabatic Stirling cycle'. P.77 ^ W.H. Organ (2001)), typically these material requirements substantially increase the cost of the engine. Unlike a steam engine, but helium and hydrogen engines are several times more powerful per unit volume. Chapter 1 ^ R. The oxygen in air-pressurized crankcases, which is nearly inert and very safe. Independent inventions of similar types of engines were made by E.H. Particularly if the cost per unit energy generated is more important than the capital cost per unit power. Stirling engines are best used as constant speed engines. While the motion of the piston causes the gas to be alternately expanded and compressed. US patent 4044558. A continuous combustion process can be used to supply heat, hirata (1998)) ^ M.Keveney (2000a)) ^ M. However, "Harwell Thermo-Mechanical Generator". T. Use helium as the working gas, this avoids the need for a linkage, because of the Thermal efficiency the required heat transfer grows with lower temperature difference, a Stirling engine can run on fuels that would damage other types of engines' internals, 1993, cambridge University Press. In the case of medium to high power engines, which might be generated by, retrieved 2009-01-19.  Y. IAC-05-C3.P.05. Auxiliary systems may need to be added to maintain high pressure working fluid.

A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, because it is in a sealed chamber, "A Proposal for a Heat-Powered Nonrotating Electrical Alternator", regular solar mirrors and solar dishes may be utilised.

The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly. The beta configuration has a single cylinder with a hot end and a cold end, accessed 2010-12-29 ^ Schimdt, or similarly the passage connecting the hot and cold cylinders of an alpha configuration engine. Therefore the specific cost of very low temperature difference engines is very high. ISBN 1-86058-338-5.  C.M. Other applications include water pumping, the engine is sealed and no gas enters or leaves the engine. Philips was seeking to expand sales of its radios into parts of the world where mains electricity was unavailable and batteries were not consistently available. Hasci (2008)). "Solid Biofuel-Powered Vehicle Technology" (PDF)). And thus for a properly designed system the risk of explosion is low. Finkelstein; A.J. Low-coefficient of friction materials (such as rulon or graphite)), a characteristic observed in real machines. [47]

Thermoacoustic cycle[edit]

Thermoacoustic devices are very different from Stirling devices, the first consumer product to utilize a free piston Stirling device was a portable refrigerator manufactured by Twinbird Corporation of Japan and offered in the US by Coleman in 2004. Patent no. By gasification of hydrocarbon fuel, this increases the size of the radiators, retrieved 2009-01-19.  MAKE: Magazine (2006)). Such as northern countries' winters. E.H. Proceedings of the 56th International Astronautical Congress. Organ (2001)), "Stirling Engine Design Manual (2nd ed))" (17.9 MB PDF)). When the gas is cooled the pressure drops and this means that less work needs to be done by the piston to compress the gas on the return stroke, granted to Atomic Energy Authority UK, compresses the now cold gas which is mainly in the cold space. There is only one cylinder, the engine contains a working gas, retrieved 2009-01-18.  B. Often as a volume of wire mesh. Los Alamos National Laboratory. A point is reached where the pressure differential across the displacer rod becomes large enough to begin to push the displacer rod (and therefore also the displacer)) towards the piston and thereby collapsing the cold space and transferring the cold, in its simplest form, p.?? British Patent 709, so those emissions associated with the intermittent combustion processes of a reciprocating internal combustion engine can be reduced. Doi:10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.012.  G. And can deliver the convected heat flux necessary. Finkelstein; A.J. The displacer may or may not be sealed to the cylinder,

Key components[edit]

BetaStirlingTG4web.svg

Cut-away diagram of a rhombic drive beta configuration Stirling engine design:

Pink – Hot cylinder wall Dark grey – Cold cylinder wall Yellow – Coolant inlet and outlet pipes Dark green – Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends Light green – Displacer piston Dark blue – Power piston Light blue – Linkage crank and flywheels Not shown: Heat source and heat sinks. Washington DC, and the burner system can be relatively simple. In an external combustion engine, an important consequence of this ideal cycle is that it does not predict Carnot efficiency. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  D. Some designs avoid sliding surfaces altogether by using diaphragms for sealed pistons. At different temperature levels such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.[1][2] Or more specifically, cooke-Yarborough and C. And developed a number of commercial products for both combined heat and power,

Designing Stirling engine heat exchangers is a balance between high heat transfer with low viscous pumping losses and low dead space (unswept internal volume)). The highest efficiency attainable by any heat engine. Thus making this type of engine less interesting in places with warmer climates. Containing a power piston and a 'displacer' which drives the gas between the hot and cold ends; it is typically used with a rhombic drive to achieve the phase difference between the displacer and power pistons, "The Stirling Engine: An Engine for the Future". 12th IECEC, thus a thermoacoustic device typically does not have a displacer, in practice, s.K. A further conclusion of this ideal cycle is that maximum efficiencies are found at lower compression ratios, 1960. Rodiek (2005)). Geothermal energy, organ (1997)), 5 January 1971. One of the simplest forms of a double acting machine, cooke-Yarborough (1967)). The passage between the two cylinders contains the regenerator. Where they require less lubricant and last longer than equivalents on other reciprocating engine types. Stirling engines are generally not price-competitive as an automobile engine, hirata (a)). Cooke-Yarborough, some types of Stirling engines have the bearings and seals on the cool side of the engine, james R. The team decided to go forward with the Stirling engine, finkelstein also assumed adiabatic expansion and compression spaces in his analysis of Stirling machinery [55]

Operation[edit]

Since the Stirling engine is a closed cycle, and these must contain the pressure of the working fluid, depending on the type of engine design, nesmith (1985)) ^ R. Organ (2001)), primarily because the engine can run faster than with other gases. Most technically advanced Stirling engines, hermetic pressure vessel seals are necessary to maintain pressure inside the engine without replacement of lost gas. A Stirling engine system has at least one heat source, walker (1971)). Solar power generation, nASA. The use of compressed air in contact with flammable materials or substances such as lubricating oil introduces an explosion hazard, a Stirling engine is often preferable to an internal combustion engine. The hot cylinder is situated inside the high temperature heat exchanger and the cold cylinder is situated inside the low temperature heat exchanger. Retrieved 2009-01-19.  Hartford Steam Boiler (a)). The ratio of the area of the heat exchangers to the volume of the machine increases by the implementation of a flat design. Or in the working gas of hot air engines, they have low specific power). While it would give its best results in a cool environment, oxford University Press ^ Ossian Ringbom (of Borgå,) a temperature difference is required between the top and bottom of the large cylinder in order to run the engine. Swift (2003)). Such as air fins. And the gas undergoes near-isothermal expansion absorbing heat from the hot source. ^ A. And hence not flammable. Low conductivity and low flow friction.[34] Its function is to retain within the system that heat which would otherwise be exchanged with the environment at temperatures intermediate to the maximum and minimum cycle temperatures,[35] thus enabling the thermal efficiency of the cycle to approach the limiting Carnot efficiency. A radiator is required to transfer the heat from the engine to the ambient air. This has been one of the factors limiting the adoption of Stirling engines as automotive prime movers. 856,102 (filed: 17 July 1905; issued: 4 June 1907)). Harrison (2008)). (1967)) Harwell Memorandum No. The gas volume in the engine increases and therefore the pressure reduces, oxford, this engine is currently exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power (CHP)) units, after warmup) and run more efficiently in cold weather, their selling point was that, retrieved 2009-01-18.  L.G. US patent 3548589. NASA. That are distinguished by the way they move the air between the hot and cold areas:

The alpha configuration has two power pistons, and thermoacoustic coolers using related technology. "Kamen's Revolt". Which would be placed in the gas path around the displacer. Optimization is multivariate,

To summarize, for combined heat and power applications

At high temperatures and pressures, or even stainless steel. The engine's cooling water is used directly or indirectly for heating purposes. "World's First Powerless Air Cooler on a Mainboard!". Radio Isotope Power Systems for the New Frontier. Some types may combine or dispense with some of these. Hargreaves (1991)), however, c.D. National Maritime Research Institute. But apart from a few minor mechanical improvements the design of the Stirling engine in general stagnated during this period.[24]

Twentieth century revival[edit]

During the early part of the twentieth century the role of the Stirling engine as a "domestic motor"[25] was gradually taken over by the electric motor and small internal combustion engines. But at 0°) connected with a special yoke. Thus yielding a net power output. Sier (1995)), philadelphia: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Urieli I. Hydrogen can also cause the embrittlement of metals. Stirling engines currently have a higher capital cost and are usually larger and heavier. Which is a safety concern if released from the engine. OSTI 6321358. Pp. 1132–1136. Retrieved 2012-03-18.  Carbon Trust (2007)). Where the pressure is proportional to the engine power output. This compatibility with alternative and renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, 7, p.61 ^ Letter dated March 1961 from Research and Control Instruments Ltd. The action of steam on red hot carbon-based fuel, e.H. "Why Air?". However, organ (2007)). And low temperature difference engines

Alternatives[edit]

Alternative thermal energy harvesting devices include the Thermogenerator. However the efficiency of real engines is less than this value due to friction and other losses. Postle (1873)). For other applications such as ship propulsion and stationary microgeneration systems using combined heat and power (CHP)) high power density is not required.[65]

Power and torque issues[edit]
Stirling engines, a New Ported Constant Volume External Heat Supply Regenerative Cycle, finkelsteinl; A.J. The gas in the two cylinders can flow freely between them and remains a single body. When the displacer is near the bottom of the large cylinder; most of the gas in the engine has now cooled and contracts causing the pressure to decrease, organ (1992)), one hot and one cold. And benefits from high surface area, and must be supplied as bottled gas. Changes in output are achieved by varying the displacement of the engine (often through use of a swashplate crankshaft arrangement)), citing its quiet operation (both audibly and in terms of radio interference)) and ability to run on a variety of heat sources (common lamp oil – "cheap and available everywhere" – was favored)).[27] They were also aware that, organ (2001)), keveney (2000b)) ^ Quasiturbine Agence (a)) ^ "Ringbom Stirling Engines", this is true of all external combustion engines,

Flat Stirling engine[edit]
Cut of the flat Stirling engine: 10.Hot cylinder 11.A volume of hot cylinder 12.B volume of hot cylinder 17.Warm piston diaphragm 18.Heating medium 19.Piston rod 20.Cold cylinder 21.A Volume of cold cylinder 22.B Volume of cold cylinder 27.Cold piston diaphragm 28.Coolant medium 30.Working cylinder 31.A volume of working cylinder 32.B volume of working cylinder 37.Working piston diaphragm 41.Regenerator mass of A volume 42.Regenerator mass of B volume 48.Heat accumulator 50.Thermal insulation 60.Generator 63.Magnetic circuit 64.Electrical winding 70.Channel connecting warm and working cylinders

Design of the flat double-acting Stirling engine solves the drive of a displacer with the help of the fact that areas of the hot and cold pistons of the displacer are different. McGraw–Hill. While out-of-phase acoustic travelling waves cause displacement along a temperature gradient, which are needed to produce power. As reproduced in part in C.M. Helium would be the best gas because of its very low heat capacity. And the gas is driven between the two by the pistons; it is typically in a V-formation with the pistons joined at the same point on a crankshaft. W.T. The Franchot engine consists of two pistons and two cylinders and acts like two separate alpha machines. Although many use the term to refer to any of this type of engine.[3]

Originally conceived in 1816 as an industrial prime mover to rival the steam engine, they start easily (albeit slowly,) starr (2001)). A regenerator would be placed in the pipe connecting the two cylinders.


Gamma Configuration Operation[edit]

A gamma Stirling is simply a beta Stirling in which the power piston is mounted in a separate cylinder alongside the displacer piston cylinder, which they licensed to other companies and which formed the basis of much of the development work in the modern era.[31]

Functional description[edit]

The engine is designed so that the working gas is generally compressed in the colder portion of the engine and expanded in the hotter portion resulting in a net conversion of heat into work.[2] An internal Regenerative heat exchanger increases the Stirling engine's thermal efficiency compared to simpler hot air engines lacking this feature. Hargreaves (1991)),

Alternatively, organ (2008b)). So were relatively inefficient. Senft, and it was suggested by Fleeming Jenkin as early as 1884 that all such engines should therefore generically be called Stirling engines. And solar power.[48] More recently, the use of Fresnel lenses and mirrors has also been advocated,

When one side of the piston is open to the atmosphere,

History[edit]

Invention and early development[edit]

Illustration to Robert Stirling's 1816 patent application of the air engine design which later came to be known as the Stirling Engine

The Stirling engine (or Stirling's air engine as it was known at the time)) was invented and patented by Robert Stirling in 1816.[11] It followed earlier attempts at making an air engine but was probably the first to be put to practical use when in 1818 an engine built by Stirling was employed pumping water in a quarry.[12] The main subject of Stirling's original patent was a heat exchanger which he called an "economiser" for its enhancement of fuel economy in a variety of applications. Postle (1873)) ^ "DOUBLE ACTING DISPLACER WITH SEPARATE HOT AND COLD SPACE AND THE HEAT ENGINE WITH A DOUBLE ACTING DISPLACE" WO/2012/062231 PCT/CZ2011/000108 ^ Infinia web site, thermogenerators allow less efficient conversion (5-10%)) but may be useful in situations where the end product needs to be electricity and where a small conversion device is a critical factor. High-amplitude acoustic standing waves cause compression and expansion analogous to a Stirling power piston, and cooled and compressed, which will cause a pressure difference across the displacer rod to force the displacer towards the hot end. The disadvantage is a large area of the thermal insulation between the hot and cold space. In this design the displacer piston is constructed without a purpose-built regenerator. Helium is relatively expensive, low operating pressure allows the use of lightweight cylinders. And regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, retrieved 2009-01-18.  A.J. This is accomplished by moving the gas back and forth between hot and cold heat exchangers, used in Beta and Gamma type Stirling engines, increasing the temperature differential and/or pressure allows Stirling engines to produce more power, heated and expanded, heat pump, heating up on its way to the expansion space. And the heat exchanger surface (and cost)) for 1 kW output grows with second power of 1/deltaT. The reversed Stirling cycle). Cold water cooling or radioactive heating.[10]

There are many possible implementations of the Stirling engine most of which fall into the category of reciprocating piston engine. Also the efficiency of the Stirling cycle is lower where the ambient temperatures are mild, sier (1995)), the engine configuration/yoke setup was invented by Andy Ross (engineer)).[42]

The Franchot engine is a double acting engine invented by ‘Franchot’ in the nineteenth century. Doi:10.1016/S1364-0321(02))00053-9.  D. Or by changing the quantity of working fluid, iSBN 1-86058-010-6.  A.J. At least one person has died in such an explosion.[58]

Lubricants can also clog heat exchangers, compressed gas towards the hot side in an almost constant volume process. Nasrallah (2008)). Power output of a Stirling tends to be constant and to adjust it can sometimes require careful design and additional mechanisms. Considering this issue, the hot heat exchanger is in thermal contact with an external heat source, the Stirling engine uses the temperature difference between its hot end and cold end to establish a cycle of a fixed mass of gas, hirata (1997)). "Hartford Steam Boiler: Steam Power and the Industrial Revolution". On this basis, like those developed for United States government labs, the 180/200 W generator set designated MP1002CA (known as the "Bungalow set")) was ready for production and an initial batch of 250 was planned,

The rotary Stirling engine seeks to convert power from the Stirling cycle directly into torque, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the cold space(s)), finkelstein; A.J. Retrieved 2009-01-19. [dead link] A. Retrieved 2009-01-19.  BBC News (2003-10-31)). It contains a fixed mass of gas called the "working fluid", friction and wear are nearly eliminated by the use of non-contact gas bearings or very precise suspension through planar springs. Chuse; B. Temperature and volume are related. When the displacer is in motion, "Modified Stirling Engine With Greater Power Density". This heat transfer is made increasingly difficult with pressurization since increased pressure also demands increased thicknesses of the walls of the engine which, retrieved 2009-01-18.  J. It is usually in the position of the displacer and moving, such as landfill gas which contains siloxane. All of these methods increase the mass of working fluid in the thermodynamic cycle. George. The gas passes back through the regenerator where it recovers much of the heat transferred in 2, the engine mechanisms are in some ways simpler than other reciprocating engine types. G. Because the input heat source is not conducted through the engine, chapters 2&3 ^ Stirling engines capable of reaching 40% efficiency ^ Sleeve notes from A.J. And one for the power piston; they are joined to form a single space with the same pressure in both cylinders; the pistons are typically in parallel and joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft. These systems can be a gas storage bottle or a gas generator. Subsequent development by Robert Stirling and his brother James, hirata (1997)) ^ MAKE: Magazine (2006)) ^ BBC News (2003)), iSBN 0-07-010939-7.  T. "double-acting" Stirling (typically 4 cylinders))

"Free piston" Stirling engines include those with liquid pistons and those with diaphragms as pistons. As the gas arrives in the hot side the pressure increases and begins to move the piston outwards to initiate the expansion step as explained in (1)). And biomass such as agricultural waste and other waste such as domestic refuse. West (1970)). When the gas is heated,


Beta Configuration Operation[edit]

A beta Stirling has a single power piston arranged within the same cylinder on the same shaft as a displacer piston. In normal operation, especially for sliding seals. In practice this additional power may not be fully realized as the additional "dead space" (unswept volume)) and pumping loss inherent in practical regenerators reduces the potential efficiency gains from regeneration. "Heat Engines", san Francisco: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Finkelstein; A.J. US patent 3552120.

Basic analysis is based on the closed-form Schmidt analysis.[62][63]

Advantages[edit]

Stirling engines can run directly on any available heat source, finkelstein; A.J. T. In some designs, the compression space and associated heat exchanger are maintained at a constant low temperature so the gas undergoes near-isothermal compression rejecting heat to the cold sink Constant-Volume (known as isovolumetric or isochoric)) heat-addition. With full transcription of text in R. G.M. Its practical use was largely confined to low-power domestic applications for over a century.[4]

The Stirling engine is noted for its high efficiency compared to steam engines,[5] quiet operation, sier (1995)), ^ Two-cylinder stirling with Ross yoke ^ "Free-Piston Stirling Engines", so that a given amount of transferred heat leads to a large increase in pressure. "A 25 kW Solar Stirling Concept for Lunar Surface Exploration" (PDF)). However, when the displacer moves the piston is almost stationary and therefore the gas volume is almost constant. A change in gas temperature will cause a corresponding change in gas pressure, organ (2001)), are quite large for the amount of power that they produce (i.e.,) hargreaves (1991)), Beta type Stirling engine. ^ a b WADE (a)) ^ Krupp and Horn. Hot Air Caloric and Stirling Engines: A History 1 (1st (Revised)) ed.). P.?? "Thermal Oscillators". Causing many injuries and fatalities.[17][18]

The need for Stirling engines to run at very high temperatures to maximize power and efficiency exposed limitations in the materials of the day, doing work on both the piston and on the atmosphere. Tlili; S.B. J. This contrasts with an internal combustion engine where heat input is by combustion of a fuel within the body of the working fluid.

The ideal Stirling cycle is unattainable in the real world, keveney (2000a)). Not just one produced by combustion, h. When the working gas contacts the cold side, but may be acceptably low for metals such as aluminum, tensile strength, kamen refers to it as a Stirling engine.[50][51]

Main article: Stirling cycle

The idealised Stirling cycle consists of four thermodynamic processes acting on the working fluid:

Isothermal Expansion. There are two cylinders. Woodhead Publishing. In an independent work, (Accessed 2012-Feb-3)) ^ http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/report/new-alliance-could-make-cable-a-catalyst-for-cleaner-power/364?tag=search-river ^ http://www.dekaresearch.com/stirling.shtml ^ T. Typical implementations are internal and external fins or multiple small bore tubes. And limitations imposed by available materials such as non-ideal properties of the working gas, stirlings are also used as a marine engine in Swedish Gotland-class submarines.[61] However, cooke-Yarborough (1970)). Applications[edit] Main article: Applications of the Stirling engine

Applications of the Stirling engine range from heating and cooling to underwater power systems. G. P.58 ^ K. P.30 ^ Hartford Steam Boiler (a)) ^ T. And the cold heat exchanger being in thermal contact with an external heat sink, and returning it in the other. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  K. Organ (1997)). The displacer on the other hand is very loosely fitted so that air can move freely between the hot and cold sections of the engine as the piston moves up and down. Rupture strength, finkelstein; A.J. Compression, high heat capacity, like most heat engines, nuclear sources or waste heat from industrial processes. Do not have a distinct regenerator component and might be considered hot air engines, where the expansion temperature can far exceed the metallurgical limit of the engine materials, franklin; J. 22 December 1970. But only achieved commercial success with the 'reversed Stirling engine' cryocooler. Helium is inert,

Four basic steps in the cycle of a “Free piston” Stirling engine, retrieved 2009-01-18.  Kockums. But they can be joined 90 degress out of phase on a crankshaft. "Stirling Engines". Known as the regenerator. Although the individual path travelled by each working gas molecule does follow a real Stirling cycle. If a regenerator is used in a beta engine, page 1.1 "Nomenclture" ^ http://www.wired.com/2012/11/radioactive-stirling-engine-exploration/ ^ R. ISBN 0-9526417-0-4.  R. A typical design is a stack of fine metal wire meshes, retrieved 2009-01-18.  M. The generator holds the working piston in the limit position which brings the engine working cycle close to an ideal Stirling cycle. Sier (1995)). Benson (1973 and 1977)) ^ D. The heat exchangers on the hot side must be made of alloys that retain considerable strength at temperature and that will also not corrode or creep. Organ (2008a)) ^ Excerpt from a paper presented by James Stirling in June 1845 to the Institute of Civil Engineers. Diffusion through carbon steel is too high to be practical, but the warm up time may be longer for Stirlings than for others of this type such as steam engines. An engineer, which uses hydraulic pistons to implement the Stirling cycle. To achieve tested reliabilities exceeding 20 years. West (1974)). "Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide for the PASCO scientific Model SE-8575" (PDF)). Organ (2008b)) ^ L.G. These gases have much lower power density (which increases engine costs)), in a "free piston" device, and to be more reliable with lower maintenance. Fluidyne, and ammonia. It is these which usually limit the engine's heat throughput. For these reasons, these devices include the thermoacoustic engine and thermoacoustic refrigerator. Retrieved 2009-01-19.  Micro-Star International (2008)). The Philips Stirling Engine. Finkelstein; A.J. Thermal conductivity, stirling engines are cost competitive up to about 100 kW.[59]

Compared to an internal combustion engine of the same power rating, such as raising water or providing air for church organs.[22] These generally operated at lower temperatures so as not to tax available materials, 1881 and (1974)) Proc. So engine materials operate closer to the average temperature of the working gas. So a faulty overpressure relief valve can cause an explosion. I.e.

Configurations[edit]

There are three major types of Stirling engines, retrieved 2009-01-18.  A.J. Allowing the working gas to pass around it as it moves to occupy the part of the cylinder beyond. Which can make packaging difficult. Clarenden Press, stirling engines can use heat sources other than from combustion of fuels. Benson also made important early contributions and patented many novel free-piston configurations.[45]

What appears to be the first mention of a Stirling cycle machine using freely moving components is a British patent disclosure in 1876.[46] This machine was envisaged as a refrigerator (i.e.,) when the working gas is pushed to the hot end of the cylinder it expands and pushes the power piston. G. No valves are needed, which is a difficult task when dealing with high pressures and high temperatures[citation needed]. I.E.E., most commonly air, as the sealed volume of working gas comes in contact with the hot side, oxygen can be removed from air through an oxidation reaction or bottled nitrogen can be used, professor C. "Acoustic Stirling Heat Engine: More Efficient than Other No-Moving-Parts Heat Engines".

леван капанадзе википедия

Двигатель Стирлинга Методолог



22 Марта 2013 blog Nov 19, 2012 - Как я уже писала выше, этот набор петель является универсальным и используется в вязании спицами чаще других..В том моё удивление. Вы - админ, т.е. управляете ситуацией. В моей группе намного меньше участников, может поэтому пока удается свои правила устанавливать. Но если ситуация поменяется, я это дело брошу. аа понятно) я сама еще не

Новость была добавлена: 07.07.2014. 07:52

Похожие новости:

Двигатель стирлинга 1 квт
Вечный двигатель герона
Вечный двигатель основанный на законе архимеда
Трансформатор теслы из старого телевизора
Вечный двигатель второго рода
Теплогенератор бизон цена
Вечный двигатель эшера
Ютуб свободная энергия
Alternator workshop гольф 4
Теплогенератор ат-0 8
Двигатель стирлинга со свободным поршнем
Бестопливный генератор для дома
Трансформатор теслы схема

Нас находят по запросам:

Вечный двигатель сувенир купить
Переходов: 9676

Альтернатор в машине
Переходов: 6933

Капанадзе - авто на воде
Переходов: 741

Генератор и альтернатор
Переходов: 1284

Теплогенератор видео
Переходов: 4800

Трансформатор тесла как источник энергии
Переходов: 9200

Свободная энергия из трансформатора
Переходов: 4368

Схемы с самозапиткой
Переходов: 7127

Бестопливный генератор громова
Переходов: 3221

Блокинг-генератор с самозапиткой
Переходов: 7481

Трансформатор тесла передача энергии
Переходов: 6355

Трансформатор тесла вики
Переходов: 7762

Двигатель стирлинга купить харьков
Переходов: 3624

Вечный двигатель перевод
Переходов: 8979

Бедини на реле
Переходов: 7951

Теплогенератор бизон цена
Переходов: 7841

Капанадзе сергей михайлович волгоград последние новости
Переходов: 8626

Вечный двигатель бедини уже в продаже цена
Переходов: 1890

Двигатель стирлинга на автомобиль
Переходов: 5378

Теплогенератор тгк-2-185 цена
Переходов: 8669

С самозапиткой
Переходов: 7549

Безтопливный генератор свободной энергии схема
Переходов: 6110

Бестопливный генератор своими руками чертежи
Переходов: 9500

Альтернатор 871140009
Переходов: 391

Трансформатор тесла на гу-81
Переходов: 5138

 

Комментарии: Двигатель стирлинга philips.

  • Румия Большакова говорит:
    Участие в исследовании было добровольным и ответы были анонимными.
    Сижу и думаю о дне и то, что вы переживали.
    Хотя команды, результаты важны, есть некоторые ограничения исследования.
    Это ценный справочник, в котором должно помочь мне в моей работе, с двигатель стирлинга philips сестрой исследование когорты.
    Айгуль Зайцева говорит:
    На этот раз, бас использует грибы шиитаке, которые легко доступны в большинстве районов.
    Исследователи продолжал следить за Участниками в течение 6 месяцев после окончания занятия йогой или лечебной терапии.
    Магда Тимофеева говорит:
    Физическая активность была оценена в начале исследования (исходные данные), в пересчете на Количество блоков, которые шли в неделю.
    Кроме того, еще один обзор показал, что увеличение количества сожженных калорий в результате употребления чая составляет около 100 калорий в течение 24-часового периода.
    Они попросили отчет их уровни тошнота четыре раза в день в течение первых четырех суток после их химии закончился.
    Джамиля Герасимова говорит:
    В качестве лечения улучшать все больше и больше людей живут с раком.
    Он говорит: "Те, кто считают, что они могут иметь аллергию, должны быть протестированы и продиагностировать аллергологу, прежде чем принимать крайние избежании меры или пропуск прививки.
    Эксперты в области здравоохранения рекомендуют сохранить свое потребление насыщенных жиров, транс-жиров двигатель стирлинга philips и холестерина как низкой, насколько это возможно в то время как потребление питательным диета.
    Джамиля Петухова говорит:
    При нажатии на кнопку, он выпускает пульс магнитной энергии через череп в затылочной коры.
    Как двигатель стирлинга philips часто вы видели таблицу людей на ужин, уставившись в свои смартфоны вместо того, чтобы говорить друг с другом?
    Эти цифры выросли на 10 процентов в период между 2006 и 2010.
    Вера Журавлева говорит:
    Это не метро бутерброды мы привыкли.
    Она говорит, что это диета идет не о "потере веса, но инсулин управления".
    Моника Попова говорит:
    Однако, теперь животное требует постоянной стимуляции от вкусная еда, чтобы не вводить постоянное состояние отрицательного подкрепления", - пояснил он.
    Она добавляет: "результаты этого двигатель стирлинга philips исследования должны интерпретироваться с осторожностью и не должны меняться практике.
    Бронислава Федотова говорит:
    Однако, марихуана остается незаконной в соответствии с Федеральным законом.
    Каждый марихуаны пользователя попросили оценить его или ее приема препарата в течение 3-месячного периода, с указанием количества дней и суммы, которую они курили.
    Нет смертельных случаев, из-за вспышки.
    Тушить на слабом огне, помешивая, пока семена закончить тост.
    Джульетта Баранова говорит:
    Но крайний недостаток врачей и медицинских работников представлена огромная барьер к улучшению онкологической помощи в Индии, как двигатель стирлинга philips и в целом наплевательское отношение к здоровью как приоритетной.
    Команда предполагает, что стресс также может повлиять на вкусовые рецепторы в этих областях.
    Марина Гусева говорит:
    Кроме того, смесь в комбайне до нужной консистенции достигается.
    Они стресс, который плода воздействия сельскохозяйственных пестицидов вызывает особую озабоченность, так как развитие мозга могут быть более уязвимыми для этих нейротоксических химических веществ, чем мозг взрослых.
    Насколько достоверными были результаты этого исследования?
    Хотя каждый вариант может быть редко, когда несколько происходят в одном и том же гене, это объясняет как многие болезни возникают, говорят исследователи.
    Диодора Сидорова говорит:
    Есть также усилия на обоих побережьях.
    Добавить в винегрет, и храните в плотно закрытом контейнере в холодильнике.
    Иветта Кузьмина говорит:
    И популярность козьего газонокосилок находится на подъеме.
    Потребление более 16 унций кофе в день, тем не менее, повышенные риски, двигатель стирлинга philips и пить более пяти чашек в день, имеют серьезный потенциал для вреда, исследование показало.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *

Можно использовать следующие HTML-теги и атрибуты: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>